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[] US-Medienkrieg, Hintergründe: PDD 68,

da sich mangels nternet und ähnlichem die Infowar-Diskussion zum
Afghanistankrieg derzeit auf die Medien und ihre Rolle konzentriert,
hier ein Text zum Hintergrund. Die Strukturen wurden bereits unter
Clinton aufgebaut, man sollte aber mal genauer untersuchen, ob die
Bush-Regierung sie auch umsetzt.

International Public Information (IPI)
Presidential Decision Directive PDD 68 
30 April 1999

No text or factsheet for this PDD has been released.

On 30 April 1999 President Clinton issued a secret Presidential Decision
Direction -- PDD 68 -- ordering the creation of an International Public
Information (IPI) to address problems identified during military
missions in Kosovo and Haiti, when no single US agency was empowered to
coordinate US efforts to sell its policies and counteract bad press
abroad. The IPI system is geared towards prevention and mitigation of
crises and operate on a continuous basis. PDD-68 is evidently intended
to replace the provisions of NSDD 77 "Management of Public Diplomacy
Relative to National Security" issued by President Reagan on 14 February

PDD 68 ordered top officials from the Defense, State, Justice, Commerce
and Treasury departments and the Central Intelligence Agency and FBI to
establish an IPI Core Group. The IPI Core Group is chaired by the Under
Secretary for Public Diplomacy and Public Affairs at the State
Department. The IPI Core Group is ordered by the Presidential Directive
to "assist [U.S. government] efforts in defeating adversaries." "The
intelligence community will play a crucial role . . . for identifying
hostile foreign propaganda and deception that targets the U.S.," the
Group's charter says. The IPI Core Group will arrange "training
exercises at the National Defense University, National Foreign Affairs
Training Center, the Service War Colleges" and other institutions. 

The International Public Information [IPI] System is designed to
"influence foreign audiences" in support of US foreign policy and to
counteract propaganda by enemies of the United States. The intent is "to
enhance U.S. security, bolster America's economic prosperity and to
promote democracy abroad," according to the IPI Core Group Charter. The
Group's charter statess that IPI control over "international military
information" is intended to "influence the emotions, motives, objective
reasoning and ultimately the behavior of foreign governments,
organizations, groups and individuals." The IPIG will encourage the
United Nations and other international organizations to make "effective
use of IPI . . . in support of multilateral peacekeeping."

According to the IPIG Chater, IPI activities "are overt and address
foreign audiences only" while domestic information should be
"deconflicted" and "synchronized" to avoid contradictory messages. 

Previously, the US Information Agency and the State Department were the
primary agencies with responsibility for international public diplomacy.
But with the information revolution, all agencies now have the ability
to communicate internationally and interact with foreign populations.
IPI is a mechanism that has been established to make sure that these
various actors are working in a coordinated manner. According to the
IPIG Charter, "The objective of IPI is to synchronize the informational
objectives, themes and messages that will be projected overseas . . . to
prevent and mitigate crises and to influence foreign audiences in ways
favorable to the achievement of U.S. foreign policy objectives." The
charter insists that information distributed through IPI should be
designed not "to mislead foreign audiences" and that information
programs "must be truthful." 

The new information policy will not be used to influence the American
public, which is prohibited by U.S. law. However, since foreign media
reports are frequently reflected in American news media, it will be
impossible to entirely preclude a backwash of the IPI-generated
information into America. The IPIG Charter recognizes this, calling for
the US Government domestic public affairs activities to be coordinated
with foreign IPI efforts. According to the IPIG Charter, information
aimed at domestic audiences should "be coordinated, integrated,
deconflicted and synchronized with the [IPI Core Group] to achieve a
synergistic effect for [government] strategic information activities." 

Sources and Methods

NSDD 77 Management of Public Diplomacy Relative to National Security

"Group Will Battle Propaganda Abroad" By Ben Barber, Washington Times
July 28, 1999

III. The Public Diplomacy and Public Affairs Missions Reorganization
Plan and Report Submitted by President Clinton to the Congress on
December 30, 1998, Pursuant to Section 1601 of the Foreign Affairs
Reform and Restructuring Act of 1998, as Contained in Public Law 105-277

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